Scientists date the drawings in the era of the Nasca culture (200 BC. To 650 AD.), Which resulted in investigations by the radiocarbon method (C14) and style comparisons of geoglyphs figures on painted vases of Nasca culture , were rediscovered the geoglyphs in 1926 by the Peruvian archaeologist Mejía Xesspe who held the lines, ceques’, ceremonial and religious streets. Meanwhile, “Where Is Nasca?”.
You maybe wondering Where Is Nasca? Well Nasca is about 435 km south of the Peruvian capital Lima located, on a plateau north of the small town of Nasca, the term “Where Is Nasca?” can be found in the so-called “lines and figures of Nasca”.
Thousands of kilometers of lines, many huge areas, and gigantic animals, plants and geometric figures, called geoglyphs, which are recognized in their entirety only from the air, the cover as “Pampa de Nasca” Marked desert plateau.
Mathematician and geographer Maria Reiche sat the first deals with the proposed Kosok astronomical interpretation of the lines. In 1946 she began initially together with Kosok, with the inventory of the geoglyphs on the Nasca pampa.
She was convinced of the importance of astronomical lines and geoglyphs and therefore tried by systematic surveys and calculations to substantiate the requirement imposed by Kosok astronomical theory. They found, among others a series of lines, often of line centers starting, with the focus on Midsummer data constellations, risings and settings of bright stars and moon lines. Unfortunately, they wrote down the results of 40 years of research only in their personal diaries, not necessarily publish scientifically sufficiently.
One of the significant scientific considerations deals with astronomy and calendar theory. The American historian and archaeologist Paul Kosok who in 1941 stayed in Peru, to explore earlier irrigation systems of the country, the area called Nasca “the largest astronomy book in the world”. He came to this thesis when he, at the time of the winter solstice on 21 June 1941, during his work in the Pampa made the observation that one of the long lines showed almost exactly in the direction of the sunset.
Paul Kosok (June 21, 1941):
“What a find -We immediately realized that we had apparently found the solution to the puzzle.”
[Aveni, A. 2000, p 131]
The first recognized astronomical study in 1969, conducted by Gerald Hawkins, an astronomer at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. As a result of his studies, he came to the conclusion that, due to the low correlation of the total number of lines with the selected positions, the system as a whole have no astronomical background [Hawkins, G. 1969]; the astronomical theory was so long considered irrelevant. However, since his investigations were carried out without a rigorous geodetic, astronomical and especially statistical approach, he earned much international criticism.
A more robust and more reliable examination was performed early 80s by Anthony Aveni. He concluded that astronomical considerations in the creation of the line centers were played a central role into another possible theory. I hope this article helped you in research for finding “Where is Nasca.”
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On the desert’s sand, in a lost region of Peru, are carved the most impressive and mysterious signs of the earth. What Conclusion Can Be Drawn About The Nazca Drawings?
Between the Pacific and the Andes, over an area of 520 square kilometers have been marked out hundreds of perfectly straight lines, huge geometric drawings and giant-like animals’ pictures. Most of these hieroglyphs are spread over the pampa surface around Nazca. It is a very dry area, where just the complete absence of rain made possible for the modern man to admire such a fascinating and mysterious show.
All the lines and the figures of Nazca have been carved scraping off the rock till digging out the yellow soil underneath the surface. The operation was most probably a handwork, since no evidence of any animal drought has been found.
Countless lines of variable length and width – some over 8 Kms long, one as long as 65 Kms!! – are spread in all directions and often cross each other in an apparently random manner.
Huge triangles, rectangles and trapeziums evoke images of runways and tarmacs (take a look at the picture!!).
Enormous drawings and other abstract figures are spread all over the lines’ grid togheter with huge prophiles of animals.
The hyerogliphs rising out of the desert are of many kinds: a spider, several birds, a monkey, a whale, a snake, a lama, a flower and a man surrounded by an aura. Some of them are bigger than a soccer field: the lizard is more than 180 meters long. The birds – among others we can spot an humming-bird and a condor – have dimensions that vary from 25 to 275 meters of length.
Besides the drawings there have been found remains of animals’ sacrifices and some woodden poles which are believed to have been used to control the execution of the images.
Most of the Nazca drawings of the animals have been marked out before the simple lines.
The Nazca tribe are believed to be the executors of those mysterious desert-carvings, and the estimated date should be set somewhere between year 500 BC and 500 AD.
This people, who preceded the Incas, did not leave any trace like descendents or written evidence. The reason why the Nazca lines have been marked out is still a mystery.
A fascinating theory claims that the rectangles and the straight lines would be a landing runway for extraterrestrial spacehips, based on the fact that the only way to understand and even see the drawings, or a sense out of them, is with an aerial survey.
The lines cannot be roads, since some of them ends abruptely on top of mountains or on rocks. It has been demonstrated that neither they are set points relating to the horizon.
Maria Reiche, a german astronmist and mathematic of the 40’s, was positive on the fact that the lines and drawings had been marked out to predict the locations of the heaven bodies – the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars – and to determine the right seed-time, the time of the year when the water would come back in the rivers, and the right season for the harvesting.
Through those drawings it was perhaps even possible to determine the solstices and the equinoxes, and the sun and moon eclipses.
Two researchers, Horkheimer and Morrison, made up a religious explanation.They believe that each line or runway belonged, or was taken care of by, a certain family – or a group of families – which took care of the cleansing on a regular basis. They also say that close to each of those lines, on the spots of the Spirits often marked by pile of stones or a source or a sacred hill, there would be worshipped the forefathers memory.
The longest lines – the rectangles and the trapeziums – belonged to the whole community, and around them the whole people would gather to celebrate the thanksgiving and adoration rituals in the days sacred for all the Nazca. The animals drawings was meant to be religious symbols.
Due to the big dimensions of the images and the extreme difficulty of their realization many speculation have been made on the system used by the Nazca to obtain such results.
The straight lines could have been marked out quite simply using three woodden poles aligned in a manner called “eye-way”: the first pole as a starting point, the second located about hundred meters away and moved on the side to get aligned with a third pole farther away that would appear to an observer located in the same position as the first.
Unexplainable though, the way the Nazca could be so precise on such long distances: some of the lines divert as little as 2 meters per Km.
A theory claims that the Nazca were able to fly with a kind of prototype of balloon. If that was true – as absurd as it may sound – then the Nazca inspectors, flying all over the working area, could easily control the straightness of the lines, avoiding even the slightest diverting of the direction of the markings.
We have two sources of evidence regarding this theory. The first one is based on the fact that the paintings adorning the crockery found in the area, show images of objects that picture some sort of balloons or kites.
The second source is based upon the fact that at the end of many lines there have been found big rounded “combustion ditches” containing blackened stones, probably used to let the balloon take off, heating the air needed by the system.
Jim Woodman and Julian Knott, members of the International Explorers Club of Coral Gables, Florida, inspired by a drawing found on a Nazca vase, built up a primitve airship. They used materials available for Nazca people, and built up a simple balloon, then named “Condor I”.
In 1975 the airship took off and, even though the two of them fell soon, it kept flying for over twenty minutes, covering 4,8 Kms: this showed the Nazca could have been able to fly!!
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