Allen J Hynek (Dr. Josef Allen Hynek , May 1, 1910-April 27, 1986) was an American astronomer and ufologist. He is famous all over the world for his research on UFOs. Hynek worked in three private UFO research projects led by the US Air Force : Project Sign (1947-1949), Project Grudg (1949-1952), and the Blue Book Project (1952-1969). Afterwards, he concluded that his research on UFOs proposed different degrees of contact between humans and aliens , so he is considered to be the founder of scientific research on UFOs.
Hynek was born in Chicago, and his parents are Czech Americans . Hynek received a bachelor’s degree from the University of Chicago in 1931, and a doctorate from the Yekes Observatory in 1935 . In 1936, he entered the Ohio State University Department of Physics and Astronomy as a teacher. His main research was stellar evolution and the confirmation of spectral binary stars.
During the Second World War , Hynek entered the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to conduct research on proximity signal management for the US Navy .
After World War II, Hynek returned to teach at Ohio State University and was promoted to full professor in 1950.
In 1956 he went to Harvard College Observatory and was already merged Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory added Fred Lawrence Whipple ‘s research team. Hynek’s mission was to track American satellites during and after the International Geophysical Year in 1956 . In addition to more than 200 amateur scientists have joined the world’s satellite surveillance operations (Operation Moonwatch), there are 12 sets of Baker – Nunn camera star instrument in the observation. A special camera was built for testing and as a prototype camera, and was disassembled on October 4, 1957; at this time the Soviet Union’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched.
After the satellite tracking project was completed, Hynek joined the Astronomy Department of Northwestern University in 1960 and served as the head of the department.
Because of the increasing number of sighting reports of UFOs such as “flying saucers”, the US Air Force established the Signals Program in 1948 to start related research, and then changed it to the Resentment Project in 1949 and the Blue Book Project in 1952. Hynek approached the people of the Signal Project and became a scientific advisor for investigating UFOs. His task at that time was to confirm whether the so-called UFO was misidentified by known celestial bodies.
When the Signal Project hired Hynek, he was initially skeptical of UFO sighting reports. Hynek suspects that most UFO sighting reports are unreliable witnesses or man-made or natural things are misidentified. In 1948, Hynek said that “the whole subject seems completely absurd”, and believed that this craze would soon subside  .
In the first few years when Allen J Hynek studied UFOs, he could steadily reveal the truth. He believes that most UFO sighting reports can be explained by misidentification of general phenomena. But in cases that could not be explained by common sense, Hynek tried to explain the many sightings with his insufficient logic, and as close as possible to the breakthrough point. In his book published in 1977, he stated that he liked the role of the U.S. Air Force in revealing the truth, and also expressed the U.S. Air Force’s expectations of him.
Later, Hynek’s view of UFOs changed slowly and gradually. After reviewing hundreds of sighting reports (including some credible witnesses, such as astronomers, pilots, police, and soldiers), Hynek concluded that some reports are credible.
After Allen J Hynek’s views on UFOs turned, his astronomer colleagues conducted an informal survey in the early 1950s, and one of the investigators was Clyde Tombaugh, the discoverer of Pluto .Five of the 44 astronomers surveyed (more than 11%) have seen objects in the sky that cannot be explained by mainstream science. Most astronomers have not publicly stated that they have seen such a situation because they are afraid of being considered absurd or damaging their reputation and career (Tombo is an exception, who has publicly stated that he has seen UFOs). Hynek also pointed out that this 11% ratio is higher than the proportion of ordinary people who claim to have seen UFOs.[Source request] . In addition, astronomers have more knowledge about observing and understanding celestial bodies than ordinary people, so their sightings are more impressive. Hynek is distressed by mainstream scientists’ disdain or arrogance about UFO sightings and witnesses.
In 1953, early UFO-related evidence gradually changed Hynek’s concept of UFOs. His article “Unusual Aerial Phenomena” published in the Journal of the Optical Society of America in April 1953 contained Hynek’s most famous A passage:
Laughing is not part of the scientific method, and people should not be taught that way. Witness reports made mainly by trusted witnesses are still increasing steadily, thus increasing the issue of scientific responsibility and obligation. Are there any residues worthy of scientific attention? Or if not, there is no obligation to speak in public-not to ridicule publicly, but to be serious in order to maintain the public’s faith and trust in science and scientists?
The wording of this article is quite careful: Allen J Hynek never considered UFOs to be extraordinary phenomena. But apparently no matter what he thinks, Hynek is quite worried about the superficial view of UFOs by most scientists. In 1953, Hynek became an affiliated member of the Robertson investigation team , and the team believed that UFOs were nothing special, and the public relations campaign must be able to expose the truth about the issue and reduce the public interest. Hynek later lamented that the Robertson investigation team had overshadowed the UFO research.
When the number of sighting reports of UFOs gradually increased, Hynek devoted part of the time to studying sighting reports, and pointed out that some reports were still puzzling after many studies. Hynek once said: “As a scientist, we must keep in mind that events that have great scientific value but are often overlooked in the past. Because new phenomena cannot meet the scientifically recognized viewpoints at the time”
In an interview in 1985, the reporter asked what caused the change in his attitude. Hynek replied, “Because of two things, really. The total denial and unyielding attitude towards the U.S. Air Force. They will not admit it. The existence of UFOs, even when UFOs take off and land on the street in broad daylight. All reports must have an explanation. I start to hate it, although basically I feel the same because I still think Their approach is not correct. You can’t assume that everything is black for granted. Second, the quality of the witnesses makes me quite troublesome. For example, it is reported by military pilots in rare cases, and I know they are well-trained. Yes, so when I first thought about this, maybe it was all this.”
Regardless of his personal opinion,In general Heinicke always reply with Project Blue Book in Edward J. Ruppelt comments period after (Edward J. Ruppelt): no UFO, most sightings are misidentification[Source request] .
Hynek maintained the relationship after the signal plan was changed to the resentment plan, although the level of investment was far less than in the signal plan era. The Resentment Project was replaced by the Blue Book Project in early 1952 , and Hynek still serves as a scientific consultant in the Blue Book Project. The first host of the Blue Book Project, U.S. Air Force Captain Edward Rupert, once spoke highly of Hynek: “Dr. Hynek is one of the many scientists I encountered while studying UFOs that impressed me the most. He was. There are no two things that some people will do: give you the answer before he knows the question; or immediately tell you his achievements in science.”
Although Allen J Hynek believed that Rupert was a competent host and led the Blue Book Project in the right direction, he only served as the host of the plan for several years. Hynek believes that Rupert’s Blue Book project after his departure focused more on public relations, with little or no scientific research on UFOs.
Hynek himself admits that his soft-spokenness is due to his cautious and conservative personality. He speculated that his personality was due to the factor of serving as a scientific consultant in the US Air Force for more than two decades.
Several UFO experts believe that Allen J Hynek’s turn represents his hypocrisy and even double-sidedness. For example , in a passage written by the physicist James Edward McDonald in 1970, he rebuked Hynek and said that he had misunderstood the person, and implied that everything would be evaluated by future generations. MacDonald believes that the retired U.S. Marine Corps Major Donald E. Keyhoe (Donald E. Keyhoe) is a more objective, honest and scientific view of UFOs.
In the late 1960s of the Blue Book Project, Allen J Hynek began to talk publicly about his differences and disappointments with the US Air Force. He publicly publicized the UFO chase in Portage County (a UFO was chased by several police for half an hour) while blatantly disagreeing with the U.S. Air Force , and claimed to have witnessed a metal appearance near Socorro , New Mexico Meet with police officer Lonnie Zamora of the egg-shaped flying object . Zamora witnessed two humanoid lifeforms in the egg-shaped flying object, and the object left immediately, leaving physical evidence that it had landed. As of 2007, there was still not enough explanation to conflict with Zamora’s claims. In fact, in a secret memo from the CIA, Major Quintanilla, the host of the Blue Book at the time, was confused about Zamora’s sightings. Hynek said that the case may be the ” Rosetta Stone ” that solved the mystery of the UFO .
On April 27, 1986, Hynek died of a brain tumor in a hospital in Scottsdale, Arizona .